4 Ways to Use Single-Point Rubrics

Feedback is one of the best ways to support student learning. According to John Hattie, Feedback has an effect size of .64 and is often considered as one of the top 5 influential factors on student learning, BUT… it is also the most variable. Most of the time the feedback students receive consists of answers to the questions: Where am I going? How am I going? But neglect the thrid essential answer to the question, Where to next? Rubrics can support this need and provide the type of feedback, by self, peer, or teacher, to move all students forward, but not all rubrics are created equal. 

Rubrics are a traditional part of most classrooms. Web20Classroom thought leadership expert, Steven Anderson and I are big fans of a type of rubric you might not have heard of before, the single-point rubric. We believe the single-point rubric should be a part of every classroom and because of its flexibility, there are multiple ways educators can use them in the classroom or with colleagues.

Rubrics have been a part of the assessment toolbox since at least the mid-1990s.  In fact, we would guess that many teachers reading this post have created quite a few over the years. Traditionally they have fallen into 2 categories, Holistic and Analytic

Holistic – Criterion is written as a paragraph. Assessed overall achievement on an activity or product 

Holistic Rubric Example

Analytic – Written with levels of achievement as columns and assessment criteria as rows. It allows you to assess participants’ achievements based on multiple criteria using a single rubric.

Analytic  Rubric Example

But there is a more impactful and flexible rubric everyone should be aware of, the single-point rubric.

The single-point rubric was first created by Mary Dietz in 2000 and has been gaining popularity in recent years. Different than the Holistic and Analytic Rubric, Single-Point Rubrics identify one achievement level for a set of criteria. This single column based on proficiency for each identified area allows students and teachers the opportunity to provide targeted feedback instead of a circled number or grade. The clarity in success criteria (.88 effect size) not only supports self-efficacy within students but contributes to teacher clarity as well. 

Single Point Rubric – Display a set of criteria written with a single level of achievement for each demonstrating quality work. No alternative levels included. Open space for feedback, goal-setting, or evidence. 

On top of that, the Single-Point Rubric can be used for a variety of purposes across multiple grades and disciplines. The core content areas like math and language arts can certainly benefit from the use of the single-point rubric. But other content areas like physical education, art, music, and others can use and benefit from the single point rubric as well. 

Single-Point  Rubric Example

Benefits for students:

  • Increased Analyzation skills to identify areas of strength and growth [Part of the process (self-assessment)]
  • Increased Achievement
  • Increased Motivation 
  • Personalized Learning
  • Feedback before grades 
  • Student truly own their learning

Here are 4 Ways to Use Single-Point Rubrics: 

  1. Self-Assessment–Part of what makes single-point rubrics so effective is the focus on metacognition. Whether students are proficient in a set of criteria or go above and beyond the proficiency marker, they have to explain their thinking and provide evidence that demonstrates understanding. These reflective activities are at the heart of how students grow and both outputs have high effect sizes, Self-Reported Grades 1.33 and Self-Efficacy .71). 
  2. Peer Feedback–As a student matures in age, peers play a more important role in academics, motivation, and self-esteem. Typically, peer feedback consists of single words “good” or “nice” which do little to increase understanding for either. Using a single-point rubric provides a perfect scaffold for giving meaningful feedback. Research shows that when students discuss their work with each other there can be opportunities for improvement and also this dialogic learning has been shown to help background deficiencies. When done effectively, peer feedback is powerful. 
  3. Teacher Feedback on Processes, Performance, and Product–Similar to peer feedback the conferring that takes place between the teacher and student can be opportunities for growth. Single point rubrics place the focus on success criteria and evidence that demonstrates meeting and exceeding the marker. When used during the process, single-point rubrics act more as a type of formative assessment and opportunities for direct instruction based on student needs. 
  4. PLC Analyzing Student Work Samples–Collective Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Clarity have the highest effect sizes when referring to Hattie’s research, but it makes sense. When teachers are crystal clear on what the learning target and success criteria are coupled with the belief that they, together as a team, can reach all students, achievement skyrockets. If you want to truly know your impact as a teacher and consistently refine your practice, all the proof you need is found in student work. Yes, there will always be outliers, but looking at student work that is consistently produced in your classroom is an effective way PLCs can work together. Student work samples provide information that allows individual educators and teams a tremendous amount of information, from instructional practices to directions given. When done as a PLC, examining student work allows educators to learn from each other, increases common expectations, and moves all teachers closer in range when assessing subjective disciplines. 

SIngle-Point Rubrics are quickly gaining popularity in today’s educational landscape. And while they can function as a traditional assessment tool, their versatility allows educators and students the ability to reimagine its use and adapt to multiple uses in the school. 

Here is an example of the above Infographic Single-Point Rubric (online course released soon) in a Microsoft Forms with Branching  

To Learn More:

7 Ways to Maximize Hattie’s Effect Size on Feedback

Few would argue the importance of feedback to increase student achievement even without having read the research from John Hattie. With an effect size of .73, Feedback is almost double that of the hinge point .4, making it an effective instructional strategy that is applicable across disciplines and grades. What is clear when distilling information regarding the what & how of effective feedback is that the components are similar in the research and theory but the variability lies in the inhibiting factors and culture of feedback in the classroom.

Top Teaching Strategy according to the research done by John Hattie

So how do we as educators recognize and remedy the variability of feedback to maximize the effect size Hattie found in his meta-analysis involving more than 150 million students to move from Feedback to Punctuating Feedback! as Nuthall and Alton-Lee named it?

Feedback as defined by Hattie and Timperley, “Feedback relating to actions or information provided by an agent (teacher, peer, book, parent, internet, experience) that provides information regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding.”

Educators and theorists have an often similar definition, relating to students asking and answering: Where am? Where to next? How do I get there?

Punctuating Feedback includes the time given for students to process feedback, an understanding of how to interpret the feedback, and classroom culture to support applying skills gained through the feedback. The greatest impact of feedback occurs when it is supported by effective teaching and learning strategies.

Maximizing a Culture of Feedback

  1. Feedback sits within a formative assessment framework. It includes “where to next” and “how to improve”. Adjusting teaching depends upon this information.
  2. Internal motivation to promote curiosity and willingness to learn and deepen the current understanding. Active involvement by students in their own learning and recognizing growth from where they began to where they are now; not a comparison against other students.
  3. Embedded challenge mindsets, mindframes, metacognition, and deliberate practice, spaced not massed are effective.
  4. Normalizing and celebrating of error is the key to new learning and promotes a culture of actionable feedback.
  5. Equity in learning is maximized through mixed ability grouping.
  6. Feedback needs to be task-related rather than ego-related. Comments vs. grades equal greater gains in student achievement.
  7. All of this is “underpinned in the belief that all students can improve.” (Hattie)

When Effective Feedback is coupled with a Culture to maximize it, variables are lessened and ALL students improve.

Source: John Hattie and Shirley Clarke. Visible Learning Feedback. 2018.

Visible Learning in Literacy: 3 Takeaways from John Hattie and Nancy Frey

Opportunity to learn with renowned education researchers and practitioners rejuvenates the mind and reignites the passion in many educators. In the second of our two-part series, Steven Anderson and I share what we learned from the Visible Learning Institute in San Diego, this time with a focus on literacy. Head over to part one to see our initial thoughts and shares.

The second day at the Visible Learning Institute in San Diego provided attendees choice in one of two paths in which to learn;  literacy and math. Steven and I jumped at the chance to learn from Nancy Frey and chose the literacy learning to continue to grow our knowledge in this area for supporting educators around the globe. Frey and Doug Fisher (her colleague) have worked extensively with John Hattie in the realm of literacy practices and transferring his research into practice. They have multiple books with Hattie, two of our favorites being Visible Learning for Literacy Grades K-12 and Teaching Literacy in the Visible Learning Classroom, Grades 6-12. 12.

Frey consistently delivers high-quality and classroom applicable learning during her workshops and this experience was much the same. During Day 2, she used a combination of research, theory, and classroom application to deepen our understanding of high-impact instruction during each phase of learning.

3 Takeaways:

Constrained and Unconstrained Skills – Constrained skills are those that have boundaries and edges to them and are acquired at concrete stages of development. These include phonemic awareness and phonics. Unconstrained skills are boundless, limitless and continue to grow throughout life. These include vocabulary and comprehension. While no argument can be made against the direct instruction and learning of constrained skills, Frey reminded us all that they are important but not sufficient. Leveled texts are great for learning constrained skills, but unconstrained skills are not developed through these types of texts. Both constrained and unconstrained skills develop independently; it is important for all educators in all subject areas to pay attention to both.

Reading Volume – The amount one reads is important, but do you know how important it is for our students? Frey offered statistics to drive home the point about reading volume. Reading 20 minutes a day = 1,800,000 words per year & 90th percentile on standardized tests. Reading 5 minutes a day = 282,000 words per year & 50th percentile on standardized tests. Finally, a student who reads only 1 minute a day = 8,000 words per year & 10th percentile on standardized tests. Assumptions that all kids have access and time at home to read will not increase reading volume; instead, make time for students to read in your classroom.

In addition, as Frey reinforced, students need both content specific reading but also need the exploration of texts beyond the content. If a student enjoys to pleasure read graphic novels we should not dissuade that student from choosing them. Rather, we should support them while still exposing them to content specific passages and texts.

Surface, Deep, Transfer Learning – Hattie, Fisher, and Frey discuss a scale for learning and divide it up into 3 parts of a triangle. Surface, Deep, and Transfer Learning make up this scale representing learning as a process, not an event. Along with the description of each, Frey offered high-impact instructional strategies to support learning.

Surface – Surface Learning, the base of the triangle, is learning that takes place during the acquisition of skills and understanding of concepts. Learners often recognize patterns and start to build foundational knowledge to support the next level of the triangle, Deep Learning.

High-Impact Instructional Strategies to support Surface Learning and the effect size:
  • Repeated Reading (.67)
  • Feedback (.75)
  • Collaborative Learning with Peers (.59)

Deep – Deep Learning builds off of the Surface Learning students acquire. As Frey states, you have to know something before you are able to do something with that knowledge. Deep Learning consists of consolidation through connections, relationships, and schema to organize skills and concepts. Deep learning is also used to consolidate constrained and unconstrained skills. Students need more complex tasks to deepen their own learning.

High-Impact Instructional Strategies to support Deep Learning and the effect size:
  • Concept Mapping (.60)
  • Class Discussions (.82)
  • Metacognitive Strategies (.69)
  • Reciprocal Teaching (.74)

Transfer – Finally, learning and school should not stop with just Surface and Deep Learning. Transfer Learning is self-regulation to continue learning skills and content independent of the teacher. Frey admits, not everything we teach or learn is worthy of Transfer Learning. Transfer Learning places more responsibility on the learner to question, investigate, and organize to propel their learning.

High-Impact Instructional Strategies to support Transfer Learning and the effect size.
  • Reading Across Documents to Conceptually Organize (.85)
  • Formal Discussions, Debates, Socratic Seminars (.82)
  • Problem Solving (.61)
  • Extended Writing (.43)

PBL – Problem-based Learning – effect size is low at surface level learning (.15) but significantly higher at Transfer level learning (.61)

As Day 2 came to a close, our minds were spinning with information and ideas. Nancy Frey not only shared Visible Learning in Literacy but invited us to consider what approaches work best at the right time for the right learning, never to hold an instructional strategy in higher esteem than a student, and our favorite, “Every student deserves a great teacher, not by chance, but by design.”

Top 5 Takeaways from Visible Learning Institute

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This week, roles were flipped as Steven Anderson and I had an opportunity to learn from John Hattie at the Visible Learning Institute in San Diego. Hattie, a researcher in education, has studied more than 150 million students, synthesizing more than 800 meta-studies to determine the effect size various influences have on teaching and learning. His work disaggregates not only what works in education but what works best. And perhaps most importantly, where we as educators need to concentrate our efforts to support student learning at high levels.

The institute was two days, with Day One led by Hattie and Karen Flories, and covered topics on research, Mindframes, feedback and how to better analyze data. Educators from around the globe had the opportunity to dig into the what, why, and how of the Visible Learning methods while being able to speak directly with both Hattie and Flories. Copious amounts of notes were taken, but the following were our Top 5 Takeaways from the first day of learning.

Top 5 Takeaways from the Visible Learning Institute:

  1. Upscaling Success – Upscaling is not typically seen in education. In fact, Hattie states that “all you need to enhance achievement is … a pulse.”  Every teacher can have success in terms of student achievement in their classroom, this is why every teacher can argue that they have evidence that what they are doing works. Hattie urges us all, “Do not ask what works – but works best!” Identify what works best for your students and upscale those practices school-wide. In most cases, it takes 10-12 weeks to see the results of new instructional methods tried with students. During that time we need to have the “sticktoitness” to follow through. But we also have to be mindful that we may not see the results we want and not be afraid to leave practices behind that just don’t work. If something works, upscale it. If it doesn’t abandon it and move on to something that does.
  2. Goldilocks Principle – “Not too hard, Not too boring.” In alignment with current brain research, Hattie introduced us to the Goldilocks Principle. In terms of learning, students prefer learning to be a challenge, but not too hard that success is impossible and also learning that is relevant and engaging. This also ties back to ability grouping and how the research shows that just isn’t what is best for students, especially those that are struggling. When we group students by ability, educators naturally slow down their teaching to ensure everyone “got it.” Rather, what should take place is a heterogeneous mix of ability levels where a challenge is the norm. Our brains, and especially those that are developing, crave a challenge.
  3. Assessment-Capable Learners – Flories introduced the concept of Assessment-Capable Learners, claiming that they should know the answers to 3 Key Questions of Visible Learning: What am I learning? How will I know I’ve been successful in my learning? What evidence can I provide to support I’ve learned? Students who can answer these questions have teachers who see learning through the eyes of their students and help them to become their own teachers. Learning can’t be a mystery to students. Nor can it be just a repetition of facts and figures. Teacher clarity has an effect size of 0.75. The more we are clear with students of what we are doing, why we are doing it and how we will know we’ve done it, the more they learn. As part of this, we would add a fourth question students should be able to answer. How will I communicate what I’ve learned to others? Not only should the learning reside within the student, but there must also be opportunities for them to share with that they know.
  4. Know Thy Impact – Repeated throughout the Institute, “Know Thy Impact”, Hattie argues that the most important Mindframe of Visible Learning is when teachers understand their job is to evaluate their own impact on student learning. Acknowledging the word “Impact” is ambiguous, Hattie sheds light that the conversations in schools relating to the definition of Impact solidify what each school views as important in terms of learning with Their students but should include triangulation of scores, student’s voice, and artifacts of student work. When educators Know Their Impact, they make better decisions on student learning success.
  5. Feedback – Flories ended the day with a focus on feedback and the .70 effect size on student learning. Startling statements were shared. “80% of feedback that kids get is from each other and 80% of that feedback is wrong – Nuthall.” And “Effective feedback doubles the speed of learning – Dylan William”. Student Feedback should be targeted to close the gap in their learning, and used by students to understand the next steps in their learning. Effective feedback begins with teacher clarity when designing and delivering tasks. Good feedback isn’t just focused on the tasks. (And actually, the feedback that is focused exclusively on task doesn’t show students grow anyway.) The feedback that does the most good is that on the self, the personal evaluation of the learner, and done during the process, not at the end. Feedback is just in time, just for me, information delivered when and where it can do the most good.

By the end of the first day, we had taken an endless supply of notes and had much to digest and discuss. What is even more clear to us now is that while much of what we learned feels like common sense to us, it serves as a good reminder and new learning for some.

Hattie says there are no bad teachers; just Good Teachers and Great Teachers. What separates the two is the willingness to know thyself, know thy students and know thy impact. Those that do not only have students who are high achievers but they also have students who are fully prepared for what’s next.

In our next post, we will look at the 5 Takeaways from Day Two where we dove into Visible Learning in the Literacy Classroom with Nancy Frey.

5 Practices to Stop Using NOW!

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I can’t think of one educator I have met throughout the years that has not had the best interests of kids in the forefront of their mind. Teaching is more than a job, it’s a passion, and teachers put in countless hours refining their craft. I, too, spend much time between the pages of research on best practices in literacy, supporting educators, and administrators who are involved in making decisions for their districts. In a recent post, I shared classroom practices that boost student achievement based off of the work from Hattie, Fisher, & Frey. In this post, I plan to use the same references and share 5 practices that are commonplace but hold no statistical data to support their impact on achievement. In fact, many of these practices actually hurt kids more than help them and should be stopped!

Stop These 5 Practices Now!

  1. Ability Grouping – A common practice that has no evidence to support use is ability grouping. When students are grouped and one teacher gets the lowest performing students, another gets the gifted students, and so on, there is no positive impact on student achievement (even with the highest group the effect size is minimal). In fact, ability grouping tracks students and limits their potential. Ability grouping also continues to place low expectations on the students who struggle keeping them at a disadvantage and increasing the gap. It also affects self-esteem and socially isolates kids. ***Ability grouping is NOT Needs-based instruction with flexible grouping. This flexible and often short grouping of students is valuable and supports student-centered teaching.
  2. Matching Learning Styles with Instruction – Another common practice that has no evidence to support it is matching your instruction to a perceived learning style of a student. While it is important to note that everyone has preferences on how they access and exchange information based on content, surroundings, etc. it is also important to understand that these preferences can and should change. To match one’s instruction based on learning style of a student is limiting and labels students. Acknowledge that there are learning differences and focus efforts on multiple practices that ensure all students learning at high levels.  
  3. Test Prep – The problem with teaching to the test is that it is usually done in isolation and has insufficient research to prove positive effect size on student learning. Taking time to teach students the format of the test is short and appropriate, isolating and teaching test-taking skills is a waste of time and energy. Instead, weave the skills necessary to think critically, comprehend and construct knowledge, and make a claim with sufficient evidence within the units you teach. Embed these essential skills as part of every lesson, project, or inquiry so that when the test is in front of them students are actually being tested on what they were taught instead of teaching to the test.    
  4. Homework – Hattie’s research supports the current debate on homework that has been popping up on multiple platforms. Homework has little to no effect on student achievement. Elementary students who were assigned homework showed the smallest effect size with a steady increase in effect size in middle school and high school. When students are emerging readers, writers, and learners as they are in elementary school, homework that is assigned as more practice on a skill they are just starting to learn often ends with frustration and struggle. Furthermore, in the upper grades, more homework is often not the answer for raising student achievement. “ Do not ask them (students) to create a school at home where many students need adult expertise; while nearly all parents want to help their students, some do not know how. Many parents can be poor teachers of schoolwork!” (Fisher, Frey, & Hattie).
  5. Retention  – Finally, grade-level retention is often based on poor literacy skills. Hattie found in his meta-analyses is that not only does this practice have no evidence to support it, the effect size is actually showing us that it is having the reverse effect and is harming kids. Retention often involves a student repeating the grade with the same instruction, curriculum, and support – why would we expect a change in student learning? Retention is damaging to the whole child and often leads to labeling, low self-esteem, and little to no increase in student achievement. Instead, focus should be on instruction and the RTI process to meet all student needs. Teaching is the greatest job in the world. The opportunity to impact a young life makes the pressures and demands worthwhile. And while no educator sets out to harm a child’s learning by poor practice, it is every professional’s job to understand where to focus their energy and use practices that will positively affect the students in their classrooms!