Top 5 Takeaways from Visible Learning Institute

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This week, roles were flipped as Steven Anderson and I had an opportunity to learn from John Hattie at the Visible Learning Institute in San Diego. Hattie, a researcher in education, has studied more than 150 million students, synthesizing more than 800 meta-studies to determine the effect size various influences have on teaching and learning. His work disaggregates not only what works in education but what works best. And perhaps most importantly, where we as educators need to concentrate our efforts to support student learning at high levels.

The institute was two days, with Day One led by Hattie and Karen Flories, and covered topics on research, Mindframes, feedback and how to better analyze data. Educators from around the globe had the opportunity to dig into the what, why, and how of the Visible Learning methods while being able to speak directly with both Hattie and Flories. Copious amounts of notes were taken, but the following were our Top 5 Takeaways from the first day of learning.

Top 5 Takeaways from the Visible Learning Institute:

  1. Upscaling Success – Upscaling is not typically seen in education. In fact, Hattie states that “all you need to enhance achievement is … a pulse.”  Every teacher can have success in terms of student achievement in their classroom, this is why every teacher can argue that they have evidence that what they are doing works. Hattie urges us all, “Do not ask what works – but works best!” Identify what works best for your students and upscale those practices school-wide. In most cases, it takes 10-12 weeks to see the results of new instructional methods tried with students. During that time we need to have the “sticktoitness” to follow through. But we also have to be mindful that we may not see the results we want and not be afraid to leave practices behind that just don’t work. If something works, upscale it. If it doesn’t abandon it and move on to something that does.
  2. Goldilocks Principle – “Not too hard, Not too boring.” In alignment with current brain research, Hattie introduced us to the Goldilocks Principle. In terms of learning, students prefer learning to be a challenge, but not too hard that success is impossible and also learning that is relevant and engaging. This also ties back to ability grouping and how the research shows that just isn’t what is best for students, especially those that are struggling. When we group students by ability, educators naturally slow down their teaching to ensure everyone “got it.” Rather, what should take place is a heterogeneous mix of ability levels where a challenge is the norm. Our brains, and especially those that are developing, crave a challenge.
  3. Assessment-Capable Learners – Flories introduced the concept of Assessment-Capable Learners, claiming that they should know the answers to 3 Key Questions of Visible Learning: What am I learning? How will I know I’ve been successful in my learning? What evidence can I provide to support I’ve learned? Students who can answer these questions have teachers who see learning through the eyes of their students and help them to become their own teachers. Learning can’t be a mystery to students. Nor can it be just a repetition of facts and figures. Teacher clarity has an effect size of 0.75. The more we are clear with students of what we are doing, why we are doing it and how we will know we’ve done it, the more they learn. As part of this, we would add a fourth question students should be able to answer. How will I communicate what I’ve learned to others? Not only should the learning reside within the student, but there must also be opportunities for them to share with that they know.
  4. Know Thy Impact – Repeated throughout the Institute, “Know Thy Impact”, Hattie argues that the most important Mindframe of Visible Learning is when teachers understand their job is to evaluate their own impact on student learning. Acknowledging the word “Impact” is ambiguous, Hattie sheds light that the conversations in schools relating to the definition of Impact solidify what each school views as important in terms of learning with Their students but should include triangulation of scores, student’s voice, and artifacts of student work. When educators Know Their Impact, they make better decisions on student learning success.
  5. Feedback – Flories ended the day with a focus on feedback and the .70 effect size on student learning. Startling statements were shared. “80% of feedback that kids get is from each other and 80% of that feedback is wrong – Nuthall.” And “Effective feedback doubles the speed of learning – Dylan William”. Student Feedback should be targeted to close the gap in their learning, and used by students to understand the next steps in their learning. Effective feedback begins with teacher clarity when designing and delivering tasks. Good feedback isn’t just focused on the tasks. (And actually, the feedback that is focused exclusively on task doesn’t show students grow anyway.) The feedback that does the most good is that on the self, the personal evaluation of the learner, and done during the process, not at the end. Feedback is just in time, just for me, information delivered when and where it can do the most good.

By the end of the first day, we had taken an endless supply of notes and had much to digest and discuss. What is even more clear to us now is that while much of what we learned feels like common sense to us, it serves as a good reminder and new learning for some.

Hattie says there are no bad teachers; just Good Teachers and Great Teachers. What separates the two is the willingness to know thyself, know thy students and know thy impact. Those that do not only have students who are high achievers but they also have students who are fully prepared for what’s next.

In our next post, we will look at the 5 Takeaways from Day Two where we dove into Visible Learning in the Literacy Classroom with Nancy Frey.

3 Unique Benefits of eduCLIMBER

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This post is sponsored by We Are Teachers and eduCLIMBER by Illuminate Education. All opinions expressed are my own. (Meaning, if I don’t like something about a particular education product I will not write about it on my blog)

When I support districts on their school improvement plans attention is given to a root cause analysis and typically analyzing data. While there is an abundance of data collected in schools and districts, using the data to make evidence-based decisions often falls shorts because of:

  • Too much data
  • Not clearly disaggregated
  • Unclear next steps
  • Inability to make sense of data
  • TIME – time to dig into the data, collaborate with colleagues, manipulate data to discern information in a way that is important to you

The importance of analyzing data can’t be stressed enough. Research shows that educators who consistently analyze data, in appropriate ways, have students who grow. Therefore, there may be an abundance of data, however, it may not be used in appropriate contexts or for the best purposes.

That’s why I was excited to preview eduCLIMBER, a cloud-based data system created for educators by educators to make data analysis more efficient and accurate. This interactive tool allows you to visualize data from assessments, behavior incidents, attendance, and response to intervention (RtI) to use in minutes.

While digging into eduCLIMBER I found multiple uses for both the teacher and district. A bonus was the parent-friendly visuals that were available to communicate with parents and guardians about their student’s learning. I also appreciated the attention to the triangulation of data. One data point is considered a snapshot; triangulating the data creates a more clear picture of our students. Finally, I found 3 unique benefits that eduCLIMBER provided that I have not seen on other platforms.

3 Unique Benefits of eduCLIMBER:

  1. Easily import data from nearly any standardized norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, formative/summative assessment. (Read my post here to understand the types of data listed) The ability to disaggregate data across sources is something every school and district should be taking advantage of.
  2.  Evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of interventions within districts. If we don’t know how well interventions are working, how can we assume they are working at all?
  3. Collect, report, and analyze school-wide behavior incidents with a fully customizable PBIS suite. Data can be used not just for academic growth but for analyzing students holistically (i.e. Social-Emotional Learning).

Want a free demo?  Use this link: eduCLIMBER demo

So You Want to Add Literature Discussion Groups to Your Classroom…

So You Want To Add Literature Discussion Groups to Your Classroom...

Developed in the 1980’s, Literature Discussion Groups (LDGs) were inspired by a group of students who wanted to continue talking about their books as a group. As a result, educators across the nation have utilized this type of small group work in their literacy classrooms. But while there are many different frameworks for Guided Reading for educators to implement, Literature Discussion Groups can look different from class to class. With this being acknowledged, there are commonalities that most share. Below is a chart which depicts the common elements of Literature Discussion Groups, as well as a comparison to Guided Reading.

Literature Discussion Groups Guided Reading
Purpose To develop critical thinking, speaking and listening skills while diving deep into the text as a peer group. LDG support collaboration, independence, and reading as a social and lifelong experience.    Small group instruction to help students build their reading power so that they can apply skills independently. Must include direct instruction from an expert teacher.
Who Typically used in grades 7-12. ALL students in the class are part of LDGs. Student Choice is extended to ALL students and teachers support and scaffold access to text so that all may participate. Mostly occurring in elementary classrooms, Guided Reading can also be used to support older students on foundational skills, reading comprehension, or vocabulary needs.
Text Students have a choice in what they read. Students typically make their choice based off of book talks or other intros. of the text. All students have their own copy of the text which they can annotate or add sticky notes to while reading and prepping for the discussion.   The text is determined by the teacher. Relevance and engagement are considered in book selection, as well as appropriate challenge and instruction purpose.
Groups Groups of 5-7 students based on choice. Groups are fluid and temporary, changing with each new book selection. All LDGs occur at the same time. Groups are created based on student needs and are typically made up of 4-6 students. Groups should be fluid and evaluated and changed about every three weeks. Guided Reading groups take place one at a time with the teacher.
Teacher Role The teacher acts as a facilitator, listening in on each group but does not become a member of them. During the small group discussions, the teacher takes notes which are used for reflective feedback, whole class instruction and/or evaluation/participation. The teacher designs direct instruction to focus student comprehension, word study, and fluency during small group instruction. The teacher listens in as each student reads and makes on the spot teaching decision based on reading behaviors exhibited.  
Student Role Students develop questions, participate in substantive conversations, support thinking with textual evidence and critical thinking. Students build collective understanding through dialogic learning. Students learn and apply skills from teacher instruction to guided reading text, and independent text. Students individually read the text to self and out loud when designated by the teacher. Students participate in discussion and extension activities in Guided Reading.

This independence and thoughtful discussion about reading in Literature Discussion Groups is one of the goals for literacy teachers. We want our students to enjoy reading, have a choice in what they read, and be able to thoughtfully discuss what they read with others. While this type of small group work does not happen naturally in most classrooms, there are scaffolds and management procedures that teachers can use to set everyone up for success.

First, it is important for students to understand the purpose of LDGs and have a clear image of what a high-functioning group looks and sounds like. This can be done through a video, discussion, or demonstration. Last week I had the pleasure to tape an example LDG with a group of teachers who plan to share it with their students. This exercise allowed us to talk through the important elements we wanted to highlight in the video, as well as a way for teachers to grow their own understanding of LDG by participating in one.

Second, cocreate norms with the students. Kids are smart, they know what groups need in order to remain focused, fair, and consistent. Voicing and agreeing upon norms will support the success of all LDGs. Some norms I had in my own classroom:

  • Be Prepared
  • Ensure all voices are heard
  • Disagree with the statement, never attack the person
  • Negotiate your own time, there is NO Hand Raising in discussions

Scaffold the learning, as stated earlier, LDGs do not happen naturally in the classroom setting. Be prepared to model, live-group demonstration, and reflect. You may also consider starting slow, have all groups start with the same, short piece. Play a more active role in the beginning and drop off to a facilitator role when they get up and running, or use Role Sheets to support discussions. (Note, LDG Roles were first used to scaffold the learning and were not designed to be used by all students for every LDG). Assign each student an individual role, or have all students be the same role (Connector or Summarizer works well for this). Common Roles in LDGs:

  • Discussion Director
  • Connector
  • Vocabulary Identifier
  • Summarizer
  • Illustrator
  • Researcher
  • Literary Lumininator
  • Map Maker

Along with scaffolding, it is important for each teacher to define the purpose and end goals with the implementation of Literature Discussion Groups. During a thoughtful discussion with a group of high school teachers, the consideration of ALL students participating ensued. Should a student be able to exercise their choice in reading if they cannot access the text alone? My answer was answered with a question – what is your purpose? While students do gain and refine skills during LDG, my main purpose for implementation was independence, collaboration, discussion, and critical thinking. All of my high school students read at various levels based on skill and interest, but I never denied any student the opportunity to participate in a peer discussion. The gains far outweighed the risks for during this collaboration.

Assessing. How should I grade students during LDGs? Most educators use both a self and teacher evaluation for grading Literature Discussion Group participation. Students self-assess through a checklist or written response in which they evaluate their own role and contributions to the discussion, as well as their groupmates. This reflection can be powerful for goal-setting and student ownership of learning. Teachers also add their own notes that were gathered during the facilitation of the small groups to the evaluation process. Still, other educators assign flat points for participation or no grade at all.

Finally, don’t be afraid to add your own flair and teaching style to Literature Discussion Groups. Add a new role, The Nosy Neighbor, Aesthetician, Freudian or Existentialist Lenses. Promote digital collaboration through the use of technology or connect your students with others reading the same text outside of the four walls of your classroom. Add a visual element through annotations, sketchnoting, or drawing to be completed by all students prior to the discussion.

Check out my Wakelet for resources used during this post on LDGs

 

A Collection of Social Studies Resources

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  • What happens when cultures collide?
  • How can I be part of the solution?
  • Are rights the same as responsibilities?
  • What influences my space and place?
  • How can data be used to tell a story?

We need more inquiry, more beautiful questions, more Problem Seekers, not just Problem Solvers.

Lately, I have been making connections between literacy and social studies. Along with refining inquiry instructional frameworks and strategies, I have begun collecting useful resources for educators. Find the list HERE

Let me know if I have forgotten any of your favorites?

Assessment Types Explained for Educators

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Assessment in Education, in the early years, typically took the form of oral evaluation. Tests were subjective, often performed at the front of the classroom, and largely teacher directed; posing questions to the student around typical areas of mastery needed to pass to the next grade level. From there, assessing students took its traditional form (students at their desk and a paper/pencil test) in the late 1890s following the institution of letter grades (A, B, C, etc.) to replace the teacher’s subjective measure of a student’s ability.

The first standardized test in education was the Stone Arithmetic Test (the Early 1900s) and the SATs made its way onto the education landscape in the 1930s as a way to check a student’s readiness for college.

Current trends in education have seen an increase in testing and making data-driven decisions, but in the era of TLA (another Three Letter Acronym), the volume of assessments educators and districts can/have to use often leads to confusion. The following is a list of assessment terms that are commonly found in education and my simple definition and use of them.

Types of Assessment

Type Who Purpose Examples
Formative Assessment – formal and informal assessment to monitor and provide feedback on student understanding of targeted learning goals. Formative assessment is frequent and ongoing; it is not typically graded. Whole Class Formative assessment is used to inform teacher instruction and by students to set goals and next steps. Exit Slips, Games, Pretest,3-2-1
Summative Assessment –   culminating assessment used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and achievement. It typically occurs at the end of a unit, lesson, semester, or year. It is commonly considered “high-stakes” testing and is graded. Whole Class Demonstration of understanding by the student. Project, Portfolio, Test, Paper
Screener –  a valid, reliable, evidence-based assessment used to indicate or predict student proficiency or identify those at-risk. Screeners are brief, identify the “who”, and are given a few times a year. Whole Class or Targeted Group Identification of students at-risk and who need additional support. AIMSweb, DIBELS, FAST, EasyCBM, iReady, STAR
Diagnostica tool used to provide insights into a student’s specific strengths and weaknesses. The data collected provides the teacher with specific skills to target when designing individualized instruction. Diagnostic Assessments identify the “what” for the student. Individual Student After a student has been identified via a screener, a diagnostic assessment is used to determine specific areas of focus. Error analysis of literacy progress monitoring data, Phonics Inventory, Reading Miscue Analysis
Progress Monitoring a tool used to assess student’s academic performance and rate of growth on individualized or targeted instruction. Individual Student To ensure the response to instruction is helping students grow in a targeted area. Based on specific intervention or instruction. The diagnostic tool can be used if there are multiple forms available.
Norm-Referenced Assessment – compares student’s performance to the “average student” score. The “average student” score is constructed statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam Whole Class, Whole Grade Level Designed to rank test takers on a bell curve. Used to determine how students in a particular school or district are ranking to others who take the same test. Standardized tests. California Achievement Test, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, Stanford Achievement Test, and TerraNova.
Criterion-Referenced Assessment –  measures student performance against a fixed set of standards or criteria that are predetermined as to what a student should be able to do at a certain stage in education. The score is determined by the number of questions correct. Whole Class Can be both high-stakes (used to make decisions about students, teachers, schools, etc.) or low-stakes (used for student achievement, adjusting instruction, etc.) Multiple choices, true/false. Short answer or a combination. Can be teacher designed.
Benchmark Assessment – Fixed assessments (also called interim assessments) to measure a students progress against a grade-level or learning goal. Often given in-between formative and summative assessments. Whole Class or Individual Student Used to communicate to educators, students, and parents which skills are important to master and student’s progress (so far) towards those learning goals. Fountas and Pinnell, Reading A to Z Benchmark Passages
Other Assessment Terms You May Encounter
CFAs (Common Formative Assessments) Assessment that is collaboratively created and agreed upon by a group or grade-level team to measure students attainment of the learning goals.
Alternate Assessment Assessments for students with severe cognitive disabilities. Tests have less depth and breadth than the general assessment. (Small number of kids on IEPs that are unable to take the general test)
Alternative Assessment Also called authentic assessment or performance assessment. Alternative assessment is in contrast to the traditional standardized test and focuses on individuals progress, multiple ways to demonstrate understanding)
Authentic Assessment Replicates real-world challenges that experts or professionals in the field encounter. Used to not only demonstrate mastery of learning goals or standards but also critical thinking skills and problem-solving. (Students construct, respond, or produce to demonstrate understanding)
Synoptic Assessment Combines multiple concepts, units, or topics in which a single assessment requires students to make connections between the learning. A holistic approach to assessment and the interconnectedness of learning.
Quantitative Data Data collected that can be measured and written down in numbers.
Qualitative Data Data collected that is more subjective and speaks to the expertise of the teacher to provide their opinion based on trends and past experiences.

 

The ability to choose the right assessment that meets the needs of students and teachers is essential. Most often, confusion does not occur between the differences between formative and summative assessments. Through my own work with districts and educators across the nation, I have found a need to clarify the definition and purpose between a Screener, Diagnostic Tool, and Progress Monitoring. These three assessment types are essential when digging deep into student needs and help to inform instruction.

Resources to Explore:

My Collection of Edtech Tools for Assessment

List of Screeners

List of Diagnostic Tools

Progress Monitoring List

Authentic Assessment