4 Ways to Use Single-Point Rubrics

Feedback is one of the best ways to support student learning. According to John Hattie, Feedback has an effect size of .64 and is often considered as one of the top 5 influential factors on student learning, BUT… it is also the most variable. Most of the time the feedback students receive consists of answers to the questions: Where am I going? How am I going? But neglect the thrid essential answer to the question, Where to next? Rubrics can support this need and provide the type of feedback, by self, peer, or teacher, to move all students forward, but not all rubrics are created equal. 

Rubrics are a traditional part of most classrooms. Web20Classroom thought leadership expert, Steven Anderson and I are big fans of a type of rubric you might not have heard of before, the single-point rubric. We believe the single-point rubric should be a part of every classroom and because of its flexibility, there are multiple ways educators can use them in the classroom or with colleagues.

Rubrics have been a part of the assessment toolbox since at least the mid-1990s.  In fact, we would guess that many teachers reading this post have created quite a few over the years. Traditionally they have fallen into 2 categories, Holistic and Analytic

Holistic – Criterion is written as a paragraph. Assessed overall achievement on an activity or product 

Holistic Rubric Example

Analytic – Written with levels of achievement as columns and assessment criteria as rows. It allows you to assess participants’ achievements based on multiple criteria using a single rubric.

Analytic  Rubric Example

But there is a more impactful and flexible rubric everyone should be aware of, the single-point rubric.

The single-point rubric was first created by Mary Dietz in 2000 and has been gaining popularity in recent years. Different than the Holistic and Analytic Rubric, Single-Point Rubrics identify one achievement level for a set of criteria. This single column based on proficiency for each identified area allows students and teachers the opportunity to provide targeted feedback instead of a circled number or grade. The clarity in success criteria (.88 effect size) not only supports self-efficacy within students but contributes to teacher clarity as well. 

Single Point Rubric – Display a set of criteria written with a single level of achievement for each demonstrating quality work. No alternative levels included. Open space for feedback, goal-setting, or evidence. 

On top of that, the Single-Point Rubric can be used for a variety of purposes across multiple grades and disciplines. The core content areas like math and language arts can certainly benefit from the use of the single-point rubric. But other content areas like physical education, art, music, and others can use and benefit from the single point rubric as well. 

Single-Point  Rubric Example

Benefits for students:

  • Increased Analyzation skills to identify areas of strength and growth [Part of the process (self-assessment)]
  • Increased Achievement
  • Increased Motivation 
  • Personalized Learning
  • Feedback before grades 
  • Student truly own their learning

Here are 4 Ways to Use Single-Point Rubrics: 

  1. Self-Assessment–Part of what makes single-point rubrics so effective is the focus on metacognition. Whether students are proficient in a set of criteria or go above and beyond the proficiency marker, they have to explain their thinking and provide evidence that demonstrates understanding. These reflective activities are at the heart of how students grow and both outputs have high effect sizes, Self-Reported Grades 1.33 and Self-Efficacy .71). 
  2. Peer Feedback–As a student matures in age, peers play a more important role in academics, motivation, and self-esteem. Typically, peer feedback consists of single words “good” or “nice” which do little to increase understanding for either. Using a single-point rubric provides a perfect scaffold for giving meaningful feedback. Research shows that when students discuss their work with each other there can be opportunities for improvement and also this dialogic learning has been shown to help background deficiencies. When done effectively, peer feedback is powerful. 
  3. Teacher Feedback on Processes, Performance, and Product–Similar to peer feedback the conferring that takes place between the teacher and student can be opportunities for growth. Single point rubrics place the focus on success criteria and evidence that demonstrates meeting and exceeding the marker. When used during the process, single-point rubrics act more as a type of formative assessment and opportunities for direct instruction based on student needs. 
  4. PLC Analyzing Student Work Samples–Collective Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Clarity have the highest effect sizes when referring to Hattie’s research, but it makes sense. When teachers are crystal clear on what the learning target and success criteria are coupled with the belief that they, together as a team, can reach all students, achievement skyrockets. If you want to truly know your impact as a teacher and consistently refine your practice, all the proof you need is found in student work. Yes, there will always be outliers, but looking at student work that is consistently produced in your classroom is an effective way PLCs can work together. Student work samples provide information that allows individual educators and teams a tremendous amount of information, from instructional practices to directions given. When done as a PLC, examining student work allows educators to learn from each other, increases common expectations, and moves all teachers closer in range when assessing subjective disciplines. 

SIngle-Point Rubrics are quickly gaining popularity in today’s educational landscape. And while they can function as a traditional assessment tool, their versatility allows educators and students the ability to reimagine its use and adapt to multiple uses in the school. 

Here is an example of the above Infographic Single-Point Rubric (online course released soon) in a Microsoft Forms with Branching  

To Learn More:

MAP Reading Fluency: A New Tool to Save Teachers Time & Focus on Instruction

This post is sponsored by We Are Teachers and NWEA.org. All opinions expressed are my own. (Meaning, if I don’t like something about a particular education product I will not write about it on my blog)

Across the country, literacy, especially in grades K-3,  is a priority in just about every district you visit. Educators are banding together to share best practices, evidence-based interventions, and inspiring stories; all in an effort to impact student literacy.

All learning in rooted in language, and as one progresses throughout life, access to continued learning, both personal and professional, is typically accessed through written communication.

For me, literacy is my passion, and I have dedicated my life to reading, researching, and sharing not only how to develop young students into lifelong readers, but to advocate for high-quality instruction in literacy for ALL students. Being literate not only allows access to information, but influences one’s personal, professional, and civic lives. Upon graduation, my wish was for students to be equipped with passion and skills to be critical discerners of information, make informed decisions for the betterment of society, and be able to advocate for self and others. To be able to do these things, a solid literacy foundation must be formed in the early grades.

Educators learn about their young readers in a variety of ways when they enter their classrooms. Understanding what they enjoy reading and learning about, how they choose books, which foundational skills they have acquired as opposed to which ones they still need to practice or learn. Typically, in a K-3 classroom, teachers administers some sort of fluency test with accompanying comprehension questions. These assessments provide an abundance of information on students to inform instruction. The drawback to this type of testing is the large amount of TIME it takes to test individual students with classrooms of 25+ young readers. And we all know the one thing teachers need is…More TIME. That is why I was ecstatic to preview a new assessment tool launched by NWEA called MAP Reading Fluency.

I want to stress, NOTHING takes the place of an Expert Teacher, but when resources like this become available and save teachers time to then reclaim and use for instruction, it is a WIN – WIN for kids.

MAP Reading Fluency is the first and only K-3 oral reading assessment using speech recognition, automatic scoring and computer adaptive technology.  It allows data to be collected around; oral reading fluency, comprehension, and foundational reading skills. With this information, teachers are able to make decisions on which areas they may need to dig in a bit deeper in order to differentiate instruction and meet needs of students.

I am also a firm believer in two things when it comes to assessment and data. First, MAP Reading Fluency provides a snapshot of the student as a reader; multiple snapshots across time allow teachers to notice trends and trends should be noted and investigated to find out the What/Why. Second, assessment data does not paint the whole picture of a child as a reader. This is where the beauty of computer-aided assessment comes into play. Reading Fluency data that is generated is immediate, organized, disaggregated and actionable. This is a huge win for teachers and a time-saver due in part to the streamlined process of technology. The follow-up, the instruction, and the passionate teaching to the student is then provided by the Expert Teacher.

For the past 5 years or so, I have been investigating tools and resources that would support teachers and students in this exact way; it is as if NWEA read my mind and delivered with Reading Fluency. MAP Reading Fluency was named the 2018 CODiE award winner for Best Student Assessment Solution. It is adaptive to accommodate  pre-, early-, and fluent readers, and is recorded so that teachers can listen to their students during a planning time or while working with their PLC. I am excited about the possibilities of this new assessment tool and appreciate how it aims to shorten the time spent assessing so more time can be spent on instructing! Want to learn more? Check out this FAQ sheet or request a Demo of MAP Reading Fluency.

Measuring Up: 6 Focus Areas for Blended Curriculum Assessment

MUL2.0_Demo_Intro_MDR.jpg

It is true, not all curriculum is created equal. There are specific things I look for when reviewing a curriculum to make the best decisions for kids and teachers. So when my friends at We Are Teachers asked me to take a look at, Measuring Up, a blended curriculum for grades 2-8, I was eager to check it out and provide feedback.

This post is sponsored by We Are Teachers and Mastery Education. All opinions expressed are my own. (Meaning, if I don’t like something about a particular education product I will not write about it on my blog)

I immediately recognized many positives while reading through the sample curriculum:

  • Concepts connected by what students will learn; to what they may already know; to real-world examples.
  • Academic vocabulary in context.
  • Scaffolded learning with guided instruction and gradual release of responsibility.
  • Apply learning independently.

Along with the previous list, two things stuck out to me about Measuring Up that I appreciate as a professional. First, the instruction is done by the expert classroom teacher, not the computer; and second, the Measuring Up Live 2.0 version aligned with my view on student-learning and assessment which they have streamlined through the use of computer applications.

6 Focus Areas for Blended Curriculum Assessment:

  1. Practice – Whether it is a high-stakes test or a certification exam; assessment practices are shifting from paper and pencil to an online version for a variety of reason (costs, access, data disaggregation, etc.) When students have little to no practice or frame of reference to online testing, anxiety rises and results are impacted. Blended curriculum should contain both digital and analog assessment options, as well as multiple types of assessment students,  can take in both a low-stake and high-stakes environment.  
  2. Cognitive Demand – If students have limited interaction and touches on devices when it comes to testing, all of their cognitive energy is wasted on how to manipulate the computer instead of answering the questions. Cognitive energy is best used for thinking critically and demonstrating understanding. From drag and drop to typing extended answers, when students have little access to the types of computer assessments they will take in their schooling and life, cognitive demands are misplaced on basic computer skills.
  3. Adaptive – When evaluating curriculum, edtech options for assessment should include adaptive measures, meaning, the test is sensitive to the answers the student provides and modifications are made based on answers. This ensures that the just right measures are used to gauge what the student knows and what they are not understanding.
  4. Feedback – Feedback is another area I explore when looking at assessment provided by curriculum with blended components. Feedback could come in the form of immediate grading, but could also provide extensions and reinforcement. All of these provides students with an understanding of what they have mastered and what additional support they can access to continue refining their learning.
  5. Mastery and Goal Setting – Curriculum that provides assessment should be aligned to the standards and instruction. It should provide a clear picture as to which skills and standards the students have mastered, what they have left to master and provide a direction on how to move forward. Measuring up provides students and teachers this information, as well as a way for students to set their own learning goals.
  6. Informs Instruction – FInally, data collected is useless unless it is used to inform instruction. Along with providing formative and summative student information, an assessment done via technology streamlines the process of accessing, disaggregating, and changing instruction to best meet students’ needs.

Curriculum cycles are a part of every district I have worked with over the past 10 years. Making the most informed purchasing decisions helps educators in their instruction and assessment of students. While all companies and curriculum writers provide unique frameworks or specialty components, be sure that any curriculum claiming to be blended places value in the professional and contains a comprehensive assessment system, similar to that of Measuring Up,  with a focus on the 6 areas above.

Assessment Types Explained for Educators

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Assessment in Education, in the early years, typically took the form of oral evaluation. Tests were subjective, often performed at the front of the classroom, and largely teacher directed; posing questions to the student around typical areas of mastery needed to pass to the next grade level. From there, assessing students took its traditional form (students at their desk and a paper/pencil test) in the late 1890s following the institution of letter grades (A, B, C, etc.) to replace the teacher’s subjective measure of a student’s ability.

The first standardized test in education was the Stone Arithmetic Test (the Early 1900s) and the SATs made its way onto the education landscape in the 1930s as a way to check a student’s readiness for college.

Current trends in education have seen an increase in testing and making data-driven decisions, but in the era of TLA (another Three Letter Acronym), the volume of assessments educators and districts can/have to use often leads to confusion. The following is a list of assessment terms that are commonly found in education and my simple definition and use of them.

Types of Assessment

Type Who Purpose Examples
Formative Assessment – formal and informal assessment to monitor and provide feedback on student understanding of targeted learning goals. Formative assessment is frequent and ongoing; it is not typically graded. Whole Class Formative assessment is used to inform teacher instruction and by students to set goals and next steps. Exit Slips, Games, Pretest,3-2-1
Summative Assessment –   culminating assessment used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and achievement. It typically occurs at the end of a unit, lesson, semester, or year. It is commonly considered “high-stakes” testing and is graded. Whole Class Demonstration of understanding by the student. Project, Portfolio, Test, Paper
Screener –  a valid, reliable, evidence-based assessment used to indicate or predict student proficiency or identify those at-risk. Screeners are brief, identify the “who”, and are given a few times a year. Whole Class or Targeted Group Identification of students at-risk and who need additional support. AIMSweb, DIBELS, FAST, EasyCBM, iReady, STAR
Diagnostica tool used to provide insights into a student’s specific strengths and weaknesses. The data collected provides the teacher with specific skills to target when designing individualized instruction. Diagnostic Assessments identify the “what” for the student. Individual Student After a student has been identified via a screener, a diagnostic assessment is used to determine specific areas of focus. Error analysis of literacy progress monitoring data, Phonics Inventory, Reading Miscue Analysis
Progress Monitoring a tool used to assess student’s academic performance and rate of growth on individualized or targeted instruction. Individual Student To ensure the response to instruction is helping students grow in a targeted area. Based on specific intervention or instruction. The diagnostic tool can be used if there are multiple forms available.
Norm-Referenced Assessment – compares student’s performance to the “average student” score. The “average student” score is constructed statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam Whole Class, Whole Grade Level Designed to rank test takers on a bell curve. Used to determine how students in a particular school or district are ranking to others who take the same test. Standardized tests. California Achievement Test, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, Stanford Achievement Test, and TerraNova.
Criterion-Referenced Assessment –  measures student performance against a fixed set of standards or criteria that are predetermined as to what a student should be able to do at a certain stage in education. The score is determined by the number of questions correct. Whole Class Can be both high-stakes (used to make decisions about students, teachers, schools, etc.) or low-stakes (used for student achievement, adjusting instruction, etc.) Multiple choices, true/false. Short answer or a combination. Can be teacher designed.
Benchmark Assessment – Fixed assessments (also called interim assessments) to measure a students progress against a grade-level or learning goal. Often given in-between formative and summative assessments. Whole Class or Individual Student Used to communicate to educators, students, and parents which skills are important to master and student’s progress (so far) towards those learning goals. Fountas and Pinnell, Reading A to Z Benchmark Passages
Other Assessment Terms You May Encounter
CFAs (Common Formative Assessments) Assessment that is collaboratively created and agreed upon by a group or grade-level team to measure students attainment of the learning goals.
Alternate Assessment Assessments for students with severe cognitive disabilities. Tests have less depth and breadth than the general assessment. (Small number of kids on IEPs that are unable to take the general test)
Alternative Assessment Also called authentic assessment or performance assessment. Alternative assessment is in contrast to the traditional standardized test and focuses on individuals progress, multiple ways to demonstrate understanding)
Authentic Assessment Replicates real-world challenges that experts or professionals in the field encounter. Used to not only demonstrate mastery of learning goals or standards but also critical thinking skills and problem-solving. (Students construct, respond, or produce to demonstrate understanding)
Synoptic Assessment Combines multiple concepts, units, or topics in which a single assessment requires students to make connections between the learning. A holistic approach to assessment and the interconnectedness of learning.
Quantitative Data Data collected that can be measured and written down in numbers.
Qualitative Data Data collected that is more subjective and speaks to the expertise of the teacher to provide their opinion based on trends and past experiences.

 

The ability to choose the right assessment that meets the needs of students and teachers is essential. Most often, confusion does not occur between the differences between formative and summative assessments. Through my own work with districts and educators across the nation, I have found a need to clarify the definition and purpose between a Screener, Diagnostic Tool, and Progress Monitoring. These three assessment types are essential when digging deep into student needs and help to inform instruction.

Resources to Explore:

My Collection of Edtech Tools for Assessment

List of Screeners

List of Diagnostic Tools

Progress Monitoring List

Authentic Assessment

4 EdTech Ways to Differentiate in a Student-Centered Classroom

2018 Blog Post Images (2)Co-Written with my friend and business partner Steven Anderson

In all the work that Steven and I do with teachers across the US and beyond we see educators creating amazing learning environments for students. From the use of 1:1 technology to enabling students to learn authentically, these really are incredible times to teach and learn.

However, among all the flash and pageantry there is a struggle. Educators are looking for ways to personalize the learning environment for every student while trying to find ways to differentiate; it can become paralyzing. On the one hand, they have the traditional methods of accessing content and assessing what students have learned. On the other, they have rooms full of technology but aren’t yet taking full advantage of that that technology can do for each student.

Carol Ann Tomlinson said it best:

“At its most basic level, differentiation consists of the efforts of teachers to respond to variance among learners in the classroom. Whenever a teacher reaches out to an individual or small group to vary his or her teaching in order to create the best learning experience possible, that teacher is differentiating instruction.”

Differentiation isn’t just something that some students need or some teachers have to do, differentiation is responsive teaching and a part of every classroom. Each student comes to the classroom with a variety of past learning experiences, prior knowledge and individual learning needs and styles. Whether it is to help a student who struggles to understand basic content, a student who just needs a little push to go deeper or a student who far exceeds our expectations and needs the opportunity to go further, differentiation should be and must be a part of every classroom.

Differentiation comes in many varieties. Teachers can differentiate into four classroom components based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile:

  • Assessment – Understanding what students know and still need to learn
  • Content – What the student needs to learn or how the student will access the information
  • Process – Activities in which the student engages in order to make sense of or master the content
  • Products – culminating projects that ask the student to rehearse, apply, and extend what he or she has learned in a unit

(There is also some evidence that differentiation of the classroom environment, the design of the learning space, furniture used, etc can also help with differentiation. If you want to learn more learning space design check out the work of Bob Dillion.)

When we layer technology into these 4 components, the process of differentiation becomes less daunting and more accessible to each student. Here are 4 Edtech Ways To Differentiate In The Student-Centered Classroom:

1. Assessment-Sometimes is seen as a four-letter word in the world of education, assessment, if done correctly can provide a mountain of valuable information that can help teachers determine where students are in their learning and where the teacher needs to go in their teaching. Particularly, formative assessment is the driver of differentiation of assessment. Formative assessment acts as a GPS, providing valuable information both the teacher and the learner. It provides timely feedback to inform instruction and make an adjustment. When the assessment is used to adjust instruction it crosses over into the “formative assessment” realm. This crossover helps teachers and students to see it, not as a test, but more as a process.

Technology isn’t necessary to do any type of formative assessment. However, if we layer in the effective use of technology into formative assessment we can not only reach students where they are in their understanding but look at trends over time and respond accordingly to our teaching.

Some Of Our Favorites:

2. Content-When many teachers consider differentiation they look to content as the way to do it for most students, and rightly so. Content is the foundation of learning and skills are applied. Therefore, if we can provide a way for students to access that content at their level, we can better meet their learning needs. Each student is (and should be) held to high standards. But we know not every student is on the same path for their learning. Through the differentiation of content, we can level the playing field for each student.

Technology has made it much easier and frankly more possible to differentiate content in new and exciting ways. In some cases, students can be given the same content, however it is tailored to their individual needs either through raising or lowering the reading level, providing more visualizations or still meeting standards but providing content that is interesting and exciting for students.

Some Of Our Favorites:

3. Process-Differentiation of the processes by which students learn is another traditional way that teachers provide different learning paths for students. For many students, the instructional practices are outdated and do not meet their needs. If we want to create an environment where each student can find success no matter their learning profile than we have to look beyond traditional pedagogy and meet students where they are at and how they want to consume information.

Technology makes the differentiation process easier. Accessibility tools built into modern devices make it easier for us all to use those devices more effectively and efficiently. And many of those tools can benefit all students. In addition, the idea of gamifying learning is gaining steam to provide an environment that is familiar to students but also is fun, challenging and rich with varied learning opportunities.

Some Of Our Favorites:

4. Product-Ultimately, students need to demonstrate their holistic understanding of the content. Traditionally that is done through a summative project. However, this method is flawed when we produce a list of items that students must include, the specific font to use, the number of cited sources, etc. That isn’t a project, that is a recipe. And recipes don’t belong in the classroom. Students need freedom of choice in how they demonstrate their understanding. That doesn’t mean it’s a free-for-all. We can provide creativity, choice, and freedom within boundaries.

Technology is truly transformational and students should be able to demonstrate understanding through a variety of transformational ways. This differentiation of product can look different for each student, however, at the heart are the same learning goals. Through the effective use of technology, students can do incredible things while still demonstrating what they know and how they know what they know.

Some Of Our Favorites

Want to learn more? You can grab a copy of our resources from our FETC 2018 Presentation or inquire about a workshop on EdTech Ways to DIfferentiate in the Classroom by contacting Steven, http://www.web20classroom.org/contact